Pharmacokinetics - lecture slides
In the era of increased scrutiny regarding patient safety and the drive toward the control of health care costs health care professionals need reliable and evidence based information source for the study. Basics of Nursing Presentations provide both in quick access, easy to use material. Basics of Nursing Presentations are designed to help English speaking medical as well as nursing students comprehend to some basic clinical situations and react to them correctly. The presentations are based on the book Basics of Nursing: Textbook for Medical and Nursing Students published at the Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava in 2011. The book presents nursing part of health care as well as collaborative framework (regarding physician in particular) for management of many basic and frequently occurring clinical situations. The book features over 35 peer-reviewed nursing procedures added on a wide range of clinical topics, which are described in sequential step-by-step detail. Each of 9 presentations provides the students with associated procedures for particular topic area.
Basics of Nursing: Textbook for Medical and Nursing Students is the first and unique book in the context of Slovak Republic to be used as a textbook by English speaking nursing and medical students and university nursing teachers. Basics of Nursing contains reliable, evidence-based information for safe health care and hopefully, it will be useful for study, practical skills training and for clinical practice as well. As the information provided by this book is up-to-date and can grow non-actual, it is crucial and recommended by the contributors to follow actual clinical guidelines of particular health care facilities or the professional organizations managing health care provision.
Arterial system of lower extremities. Principles of blood flow. Endothelium. Endothelial vasodilators. Endothelial dysfunction. Atherosclerosis obliterans Risk factors. Arterial aneurysms. Vasospastic diseases. Raynaud disease. Occlusive arterial disease. Blood flow in veins – lower extremities. Venous system of lover extremities. Symptoms and signs of DVT. Lymphedema.
Clinical stand point – classification. Coronary circulation. Regulation of coronary circulation. Myocardial ischemia. Endothelial vasodilatators. A new insight into atherosclerosis. Progression of ATS process. Progression in the plaque growing. Nonstable plaque. Thrombosis inside the CA. Development of ischemic injury of myocardium. Electrophysiological changes. Mechanical properties. Clinical signs of IHD. Myocardial enzymes...
Practicals for 1st year students.
The aims of the lecture
Basic muscle properties,.Sceletal, cardiac, smooth muscles and the differences. Basic muscle and muscle cell structure (myofibril, sarcomere, actin, myosin...). Motor unit, neuro-muscular junction, acetylcholine, end-plate potential. T tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, muscle fiber action potential. Muscle contraction and its control (tropomyosin), role of Ca ions and ATP. Single muscle twitch, superposition, summation, tetanus (unfused, fused), rigor mortis. Single unit and multiunit smooth muscle, gap junction, syncytium. Cardiac muscle structure, intercalated discs, Ca induced Ca release. Cardiac muscle action potential, the duration of action potential, summation of contraction.
Depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, action potential – the shape, mechanisms, refractory periods, propagation of action potential (continual spreading, saltatory conduction), electrical stimulation – rheobase, chronaxy, graded potential, synapse, neurotransmitter, mechanisms of transmission receptors (ionotropic vs. metabotropic), EPSP, IPSP, summation (temporal, spatial), convergence, divergence.
Ionizing radiation commonly used in the radiotherapy of brain tumours can cause adverse side effects to surrounding normal brain tissue.
Cells of malignant tumors show a certain degree of resistance to apoptosis, while some types of tumor cells are remarkably resistant. Malignant melanoma, one of the most aggresive tumors, is characterized by high resistance to therapeutic drugs and by elevated capacity to metastasize.