Arterial system of lower extremities. Principles of blood flow. Endothelium. Endothelial vasodilators. Endothelial dysfunction. Atherosclerosis obliterans Risk factors. Arterial aneurysms. Vasospastic diseases. Raynaud disease. Occlusive arterial disease. Blood flow in veins – lower extremities. Venous system of lover extremities. Symptoms and signs of DVT. Lymphedema.
Clinical stand point – classification. Coronary circulation. Regulation of coronary circulation. Myocardial ischemia. Endothelial vasodilatators. A new insight into atherosclerosis. Progression of ATS process. Progression in the plaque growing. Nonstable plaque. Thrombosis inside the CA. Development of ischemic injury of myocardium. Electrophysiological changes. Mechanical properties. Clinical signs of IHD. Myocardial enzymes...
Practicals for 1st year students.
The aims of the lecture
Basic muscle properties,.Sceletal, cardiac, smooth muscles and the differences. Basic muscle and muscle cell structure (myofibril, sarcomere, actin, myosin...). Motor unit, neuro-muscular junction, acetylcholine, end-plate potential. T tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, muscle fiber action potential. Muscle contraction and its control (tropomyosin), role of Ca ions and ATP. Single muscle twitch, superposition, summation, tetanus (unfused, fused), rigor mortis. Single unit and multiunit smooth muscle, gap junction, syncytium. Cardiac muscle structure, intercalated discs, Ca induced Ca release. Cardiac muscle action potential, the duration of action potential, summation of contraction.
Depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, action potential – the shape, mechanisms, refractory periods, propagation of action potential (continual spreading, saltatory conduction), electrical stimulation – rheobase, chronaxy, graded potential, synapse, neurotransmitter, mechanisms of transmission receptors (ionotropic vs. metabotropic), EPSP, IPSP, summation (temporal, spatial), convergence, divergence.
Ionizing radiation commonly used in the radiotherapy of brain tumours can cause adverse side effects to surrounding normal brain tissue.
Cells of malignant tumors show a certain degree of resistance to apoptosis, while some types of tumor cells are remarkably resistant. Malignant melanoma, one of the most aggresive tumors, is characterized by high resistance to therapeutic drugs and by elevated capacity to metastasize.
The mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain lateral ventricles retains the capacity of
neurogenesis and gliogenesis till adulthood.