Basic muscle properties,.Sceletal, cardiac, smooth muscles and the differences. Basic muscle and muscle cell structure (myofibril, sarcomere, actin, myosin...). Motor unit, neuro-muscular junction, acetylcholine, end-plate potential. T tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, muscle fiber action potential. Muscle contraction and its control (tropomyosin), role of Ca ions and ATP. Single muscle twitch, superposition, summation, tetanus (unfused, fused), rigor mortis. Single unit and multiunit smooth muscle, gap junction, syncytium. Cardiac muscle structure, intercalated discs, Ca induced Ca release. Cardiac muscle action potential, the duration of action potential, summation of contraction.
The main purpose of the study guide is to provide a basic educational material for the study of the bones, joints and muscles of the upper and lower limb. The text is enriched by the figures of the dry human bones - photographs of the bony preparations used during the anatomy practicals in our Department of Anatomy. Figures of the joints, ligaments and muscles are retrieved from public domein of Gray´s Anatomy of human Body (1918). Althought the study guide contains the photos and figures, it is necessary to use this study material in association with any human anatomy atlas (Sobotta´s, Gray´s, Gilroy´s or Netter´s atlas of human anatomy). The study guide offers the possibility to test the obtained knowledge by a set of review questions at the last chapter.
Biophysics of Breathing
.. Ventilation - the role of respiratory muscles. Ventilation - types (in adults). Origine of..