Electricity. Electric Units. Types of Electric Currents. Human Body and Electricity. Impedance, Resistance and Reactance. Biological Effects of Electric Currents on Human Body. Stimulatory Currents in Medicine. Methods of Electric Stimulation with AC Currents. Methods of Electric Stimulation with DC Current. Heart Pacemaker. II. Electrolytic Effect. Methods that use Electrolytic Effect of DC Current. III. Thermal Effect. Magnetic Fields. Patient Protection Against Electric Shock –Basic Rules.
Heart as a source of biopotentials. Heart as a pump. Blood flow in vessels.
Anatomy of Heart. Hearth - Source of Electric Biopotentials. Action Potential of Sinoatrial Node and Prepotential. Spreading of Electric Depolarisation in Heart. Heart as a Pump. Dynamic of Heart. Blood Pressures in Heart. Elasticity of aorta and arteries. Blood Circulation. Blood flow - types. Types of Blood pressures. Measurement of BP. Filtration at Capillary Loop.
The aims of the lecture
Basic muscle properties,.Sceletal, cardiac, smooth muscles and the differences. Basic muscle and muscle cell structure (myofibril, sarcomere, actin, myosin...). Motor unit, neuro-muscular junction, acetylcholine, end-plate potential. T tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, muscle fiber action potential. Muscle contraction and its control (tropomyosin), role of Ca ions and ATP. Single muscle twitch, superposition, summation, tetanus (unfused, fused), rigor mortis. Single unit and multiunit smooth muscle, gap junction, syncytium. Cardiac muscle structure, intercalated discs, Ca induced Ca release. Cardiac muscle action potential, the duration of action potential, summation of contraction.
Depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, action potential – the shape, mechanisms, refractory periods, propagation of action potential (continual spreading, saltatory conduction), electrical stimulation – rheobase, chronaxy, graded potential, synapse, neurotransmitter, mechanisms of transmission receptors (ionotropic vs. metabotropic), EPSP, IPSP, summation (temporal, spatial), convergence, divergence.